IRS Issues Guidance for Early Country-by-Country Reporting

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February 7, 2017

Recently, the IRS issued guidance for multinational enterprises (MNEs) with at least $850 million in annual revenue based in the United States that may have constituent entities subject to country-by-country (CbC) reporting requirements in foreign jurisdictions because of the effective date of CbC reporting in the United States.  CbC reporting aims to eliminate tax avoidance by multinational companies by requiring MNEs to report certain indicators of the MNE’s economic activity in each country and allowing the tax authorities to share that information with one another.

In the U.S., MNEs make the CbC report on Form 8975, “Country-by-Country” report.  The report contains revenue, profit or loss, capital, and accumulated earnings data for each country of operation.  Last year, the IRS issued final regulations requiring these reports for reporting periods that begin on or after the first day of the first taxable year of the ultimate parent entity beginning after June 30, 2016.  (See prior coverage.)  However, several countries have implemented CbC reporting on constituent entities for periods beginning on or after January 1, 2016.  As a result, constituent entities of a U.S. MNE may be subject to local CbC filing in their jurisdictions for reporting periods before the effective date of the final regulations unless the ultimate parent files Form 8975 for the earlier period or reports CbC information to another jurisdiction that accepts a surrogate filing for the U.S. MNE.

Revenue Procedure 2017-23 provides that the ultimate parent of a U.S. MNE may choose to voluntarily file Form 8975 and the accompanying Schedule A for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2016 and before June 30, 2016.  Beginning on September 1, 2017, a parent entity may file Form 8975 for an early reporting period that ends with or during the parent entity’s tax year by attaching it to its tax return for such year.  If the ultimate parent has already filed its tax return for such year, it must file an amended return and attach Form 8975 within 12 months of the end of such tax year to file the CbC report for the early reporting period.

The IRS encourages entities that file their tax returns electronically to also file Form 8975 electronically.  Form 8975 must be filed through the IRS Modernized e-File system in XML format.  Paper forms will be made available before the September 1, 2017, deadline for filers who cannot file the form in XML format.

W-2 Phishing Scam Targeting More Employers, Including Chain Restaurants and Staffing Companies

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February 3, 2017

Yesterday, the IRS and state tax agencies issued a joint warning to employers that the Form W-2 phishing scam that first affected large businesses last year has now expanded to other organizations, including chain restaurants, staffing companies, schools, tribal organizations, and nonprofits.  The scam involves emails sent to payroll or human resources employees that appear to be from organization executives and request a list of all employees and their Forms W-2.  Once the scammer receives the information, it can be used to file false tax returns and claim employee refunds.

According to IRS Commissioner John Koskinen, this is one of the most dangerous phishing scams the tax world has faced in a long time.  The IRS and its state and industry partners, known as the “Security Summit,” have enacted safeguards in 2016 and 2017 to identify and halt scams such as this, but cybercriminals simply evolve their methods to avoid those safeguards.  A 2016 Government Accountability Office report found that in 2014, the IRS paid an estimated $3.1 billion in fraudulent identify theft refunds.  The report also found that the IRS prevented the payment of or recovered another $22.5 billion in identify theft refunds in the same year.  Both numbers were down from the prior year, but it is somewhat unclear whether that is a result of a change in the methodology used to calculate the estimates.

To add insult to injury, some scammers are going back to the well, by following-up on the Form W-2 request with an email requesting a wire transfer.  As a result, some entities have not only exposed their employees’ personal information and made them vulnerable to potential identify theft but also lost thousands of dollars.  Employers should ensure that payroll, treasury, and accounts payable processes and procedures are in place to prevent the unauthorized sharing of Form W-2 information and unauthorized wire transfers.

Organizations that receive a scam email should forward the email to phishing@irs.gov, placing “W2 Scam” in the subject line.  In addition, organizations should file a complaint with the Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3), which is operated by the FBI.  If an organization has already had Forms W-2 stolen, it should review the Federal Trade Commission and IRS’s recommended actions, available at www.identitytheft.gov and www.irs.gov/identitytheft, respectively.  Employees concerned about identity theft can consult Publication 4524 and Publication 5027 for information.  If an employee’s tax return gets rejected because of a duplicate social security number, he or she should file Form 14039, “Identity Theft Affidavit.”

First Friday FATCA Update

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February 3, 2017

Recently, the Treasury released the Intergovernmental Agreements (IGAs) entered into between the United States and the following treaty partners, in these respective forms:

  • Anguilla, Model 1B;
  • Bahrain, Model 1B;
  • Greece, Model 1A; and
  • Greenland, Model 1B.

Under FATCA, IGAs come in two forms: Model 1 or Model 2.  Under a Model 1 IGA, the foreign treaty partner agrees to collect information of U.S. accountholders in foreign financial institutions (FFIs) operating within its jurisdiction and transmit the information to the IRS.  Model 1 IGAs are drafted as either reciprocal (Model 1A) agreements or nonreciprocal (Model 1B) agreements.  By contrast, Model 2 IGAs are issued in only a nonreciprocal format and require FFIs to report information directly to the IRS.

A CAA is a bilateral agreement between the United States and the treaty partner to clarify or interpret treaty provisions.  A CAA implementing an IGA typically establishes and prescribes the rules and procedures necessary to implement certain provisions in the IGA and the Tax Information Exchange Agreement, if applicable.  Specific topics include registration of the treaty partner’s financial institutions, time and manner of exchange of information, remediation and enforcement, confidentiality and data safeguards, and cost allocation.  Generally, a CAA becomes operative on the later of (1) the date the IGA enters into force, or (2) the date the CAA is signed by the competent authorities of the United States and the treaty partner.

The Treasury Department website publishes IGAs, and the IRS publishes their implementing CAAs.